Read the passage below carefully and answer the question that follows. Each question carries 3 marks.


 The root of the problems which bedevil rural in Nigeria can be traced to the sad fact that work opportunities are so restricted that they cannot work their way out of poverty and misery. Though a great number Nigerians still live in the village and small towns, work opportunities exist mainly in the big cities where development efforts are concentrated. The reason usually given for this obvious lapse is that it is easier to establish industries and to find finance and markets to keep them going in the big cities and town in the rural areas where productivities is low because of mass illiteracy poverty. As capital is the product of human work, rural dwellers who are desperate enough to overcome poverty often leave the village in search of some kind of existence in the big cities and towns. Therefore, rural unemployment in Nigeria produces mass migration into the cities, leading to a rate of urban growth which seriously taxes the resources of even the biggest cities like Ibadan, Lagos and Kano. From the sad experiences of these cities, it is easy to see how rural unemployment can become urban unemployment with the attendant social problem like robbery, overcrowding and the growth of shanties or slums. Such problems cannot be wished away but will remain with us until deliberate effort are made to bring health to economic life outside the big cities in order to check the migration of destitute rural dwellers into towns and cities that cannot absorb them. It is necessary; therefore, that at least an important part of the development effort should bypass the big cities and be concerned with the provision of viable infrastructure in the small towns and villages. In this connection, it is necessary to emphasize that the primary needs is workplace. The task should be to bring into existence thousand or millions of new workplaces in the rural areas and small towns in order to maximize work opportunity for rural dwellers. For this proposition to make sense, first, the work opportunities should be created in the rural areas where the majority of the people lived, not where they tend to migrate for lack of opportunities. Second, the production methods employed must be relatively simple, so that the demands for high skills are minimized, not only in production process itself but also in matters or organization, raw materials and for local use. Lastly, financing, make ting and so fort. Third, production should be mainly from local material and for local use. Lastly, rural workplaces should be cheap enough so that they can be created in large numbers. These four requirements together meet the description of what is usually called cottage industry. Millions of them are needed for rural transformation in Nigeria and ton check the dangerous process of mutual positioning between urban and rural areas in the country.

  1. The expression as capital is the product of human work seems to support the argument that
    (a) rural people are poor because they lack work opportunities to fight back poverty
    (b) urban productivity is affected by mass migration from the rural areas
    (c) urban areas will continue to experiences overcrowding as long as workplace are concentrated there
    (d) rural dwellers who move to capital cities often overcome poverty
  2. The expression mutual poisoning, as used in the passage, suggest that
    (a) migration negates effective urban and rural life
    (b) migration can make urban and rural people sick
    (c) rural and urban areas complement each other
    (d) rural people violate urban hygiene
  3. The writer describe the features of a cottage industry as
    (a) remedying urban migration available employment, simplicity of operation and affordable product
    (b) rural location, simplicity, local sourcing of raw materials and affordability of products
    (c) affordable energy sources, availability of marketing of products
    (d) availability of capital, high productivity, low capital demand and simplicity of operations
  4. Which of the following statement is true according to the passage?
    (a)  urban workplace are responsible for rural poverty and misery
    (b) providing work opportunities in the rural areas will lead to low  productivity, illiterates and poverty
    (c) rural work opportunities could reduce urban unemployment
    (d) urban workplace absorb rural/urban migrant
  5. In the first sentence of the passage, the word work, used differently, can be explained as
    (a) industries and earn
    (b) job and struggle
    (c) employment and insure
    (d) career and prepare



The obvious function of a daily paper is to give news to the people, buts this, at a moment, may be done in three ways which are not all equally laudable. First, there is the paper which set out to give a brief resume of the news, and backs this up by well    written articles on current affairs by leading writers and expert, secondly, there is the daily which caters for popular taste, and contain only the most sensational and exciting bits of news, supporting them with comic strips, pictures, children corners, women’s section and readers letters on anything but weighty topic. Thirdly, there is the propaganda type of paper, which presents only that version of the news which agrees with its own particular political outlook. All these give news in different ways; but what deeper function can be the idea daily paper have? In the case of the Nigerian daily newspaper, the first type gives the thinking reader an unbiased view of the world situation, so that can judge the importance of recent events for himself, but  it does not indicate to him what he ought to think. The drawback to this is that the semi-literate or uneducated find it dull or difficult, and so are discourage from reading such a paper regularly, because it demands too much thought and efforts from them. The main advantage of this type of paper, however, is its soundness, excellent English expression and general effect of widening the reader’s knowledge on a variety of subjects. The second type interest the majority and gives them the more striking items in an easy comprehensible way, accompanied by lavish photograph and usually with some slight political bias towards the left and the interest of the working class, from which most of its readers come. Te draw back of this type is that there is not enough solid thinking matter and the English is often faulty in style-tending toward journalese. The advantage is that it is quickly and easily read, on  the bus or train or over the breakfast table, and gives a superficial knowledge of current affairs to people who would not have the time or inclination to read heavier literature. Also, it is a family paper, which every members of the household can enjoy, since there is something to please all their tastes. Third type, to some extent, appeals to emotion, not reason. It instruct the readers in exactly what that particular editor believes he ought to think and does not give s him a chance to have a mind of his own by letting him hear the other person point of view. The drawback is that it prevents people from thinking for themselves and causes political hysterias rather than, and allows discontented people to air their grievances instead of letting them smolder underground. From these examples, it should e clear that the ideal function of a daily paper would be to present the news clearly and simply and to support it with articles in good English which shows the point of views of various competent people of different outlooks on current problems. The reader could then choose which line of thought appealed to him most. Women and children section would be good so long as they did not grow so out of proportion that the paper depended solely upon them for its popularity. Good pictures would add to the paper instructive values as well as to its interest; and advertisements, kept in bounds, might be helpful, both as shopping guides and as a financial help to be paper itself. All these point seems to be desirables in a daily paper now that the radio helps in giving news headlines.

6. Which of the following best summarized the argument in the passage?
(a) there are three laudable thought unequal ways of news presentation by a daily paper
(b) press freedom is an important feature of a daily newspaper
(c) there are three obvious function of a daily newspaper
(d) a good newspaper is that which is simple, logical and balanced in its news coverage

7. The writer seems to suggest that
(a) there can be unbalanced newspaper presentation
(b) objectivity, simplicity and clarity are the hallmarks of good journalism
(c) the important function of a daily is to further develop the news headlines which the radio usually produces
(d) sensational reporting is a feature of press freedom

8. The phrase political hysteria, as used in the passage, means
(a) tension and ill feeling
(b) hatred and rivalries
(c) anxiety and misunderstanding
(d) crisis and confusion

9. According to the passage, the desirable newspaper is that which
(a) is eclectic and modest
(b) is popular and sensational and has a slight political flavor
(c) does not create political hysteria
(d) is intellectual and unbiased

10. An appropriate title for this passage is
(a) the logic of press freedom
(b) the political hysteria of a daily newspaper
(c) three ideal function of a daily newspaper
(d) the ideal daily newspaper.


In recent times, women in Nigeria have been seeking greater independence and recognition. No longer content with their tradition roles as housewives and mother, the women have joined together to create a kind of women liberation movement, first under the umbrella of WRAPA, an acronym for women’s right and privileges agency, and later under several other bodies including non-government agencies like women in Nigeria (WIN), association of northern women in science and technology (ANWIST) and convention for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (CEDAW). A whole federal ministry called ministry for women affairs has been established since 1995 for the development and advancement of Nigeria women toward what they call gender equality. Through all these bodies Nigeria women hope to acquire the freedom to pursue interest outside the home, like the opportunity to acquire an education or pursue a career, instead of spending all the time doing housework. The effects to the changes brought about by these bodies are already being felt in some families. For instance, the traditional husband-wife relationship appears to be undergoing a radical transformation, because so many women are now working, men are learning to share the household tasks of cooking, cleaning and even caring for the children. In some families, there appears to be a complete reversal of the traditional roles; the husband stays home while the wife earns the family’s income. It should be pointed out, however, that this is the exception, not the rule. The effect of women’s liberation is being felt not only in the home but also on the job. More and more women are working and they are demanding equal responsible positions. It is not uncommon these day for a woman to head major government ministries and parastatals. Many businesses now encourage women to advanced to high management position and every year, the nations higher institution produce more women doctors, lawyers and accountants. Politics and government are other areas that are feeling the impact of the women’s movement. Although Nigerians do not appear ready to accept a woman president, women are already being elected to public office in increasing numbers as senators and members of national and state assemblies. Although, Nigeria is yet to have a woman governor, a few years ago, this would have been unthinkable. In conclusion, women in Nigeria are acquiring greater independence which is causing sweeping changes in the society-at home, at work and in politics. Some men may not be happy with these changes but women are always quick to point out that it was they, the men, who created the conditions leading to the reaction of the women.

11. One argument in support of women’s liberation is that it
(a) compel men to take over the tasks  of cooking, cleaning and other household chores
(b) encourage Nigeria women ton eke out a living independently of the men
(c) enables more women to attain higher position
(d) brings improvement to home, at work and in politics

12. Which of the following captures the vision of the writer on the future of Nigerian women?
(a) it is possible for Nigerian women to attain equal statue with men
(b) Nigeria will never accept a woman president for their country
(c) Nigeria higher institution can produce more women doctors, lawyer and accountant than men
(d) if the present trend is not checked, Nigerian women will take over the roles of the men

13. The expression causing sweeping changes as used in the passage, means
(a) producing far-reaching effects
(b) cleaning up the Nigerian society
(c) improving husband-wife relationship
(d) resulting in unpalatable consequences

14. From the last paragraph, it can be concluded that
(a) the liberation movement is women’s reaction to men actions
(b) Nigerian men are opposed to the women liberation movement
(c) the effect of women’s liberation are felt only at home and at work
(d) the women liberation movement has brought untold hardship on many Nigerian men

15. Which of the following statement is true according to the passage?
(a) The guest for women’s liberation appears to be making progress in Nigeria
(b) the Nigeria society is now free of all forms of discrimination against women
(c) women in Nigeria have now established a ministry called ministry for women affair
(d) the majority of Nigerian women have now taken over men’s traditional roles.


The passage below has gaps numbered 16 to 25. Immediately following each gap, four are provided choose the most appropriate option for each gap. Each question carries 2 marks.

 One of most difficult and confusing aspects of the English language is it spelling system. There is often …16… [A a similarity B concord C discrepancy D discord] between the pronunciation of a word and its spelling. One cannot always tell how to spell a word… 17… [a as from B throughout C as to D by] its pronunciation. In order to understand the peculiarity of the English spelling ….18… [A system B confusion C difficult D code] it is good to know something about the history of the language. First, it is helpful to realize that English was originally spoken by people who could neither read nor write. While the … 19… [A middle-class B less enlightened C uneducated D educated] people spoke English; the literate upper classes spoke French and wrote in Latin. Later, when English became a … 20… [A literary B coded C romantic D written] language, there was no system for spelling its words. Moreover, the first writers of English where French and wrote in Latin. Later when English spelling its words. Moreover the first writers of English were French-spacers …21…[A scribes B newscasters C interpreters D orators ] who knew English only slightly; therefore, they carried many French spelling ..22.. [A Idiosyncrasies B habits C attitude D mannerisms ] into English. In addition, these first writers of English, who were used to writing in Latin, often …23.. [A juxtaposed B interjected C inserted D interpolated ] letter into words even they were not pronounced because the …24.. [A antecedent B corresponding C synonymous D opposing ] words in latin was spelled that way words changed while the spelling remained  the same.


In Each Of  Question 26 To 40, Choose The Option Opposite In Meaning To The Words Or Phrase In Italics

26. The usually hostile crowed was captivated by the player’s winsome attitude A colorful B obnoxious C drunken D friendly

27. He gave himself up by his plebian taste A robust B laughable C voracious D patrician

28. The reporter made a masterly analysis of the situation A a proper B an unskilled C an in-depth D a mistake

29. Akpan was able to douse the flames with the new piece of equipment A reduce B reinforce C extinguish D ignite

30. a tentative solution was  provided A a definitive B a provisional C an amicable D a convincing

31. the notice reads’ no cash transaction in this half A gainful B cheque C money D business

32. in our last play, segun acted the hero A assassin B villain C devil D criminal

33. the main drew a sword as people congregated round him A fled from B gathered round C praised D mobbed

34. no sooner had he arrived than it started to rain A simultaneously B seldom C just before D long before

35. The police found a conclusive proof of the boy guilt A a corroborative B a consolatory C an incriminating D a doubtful

36. he has no reason to have his heart  in his mouth A be afraid  feel guilty  C be confident D think negatively

37. that little boy has become quite chubby A intelligent B tall C thin D huge

38. the point you have made is quit apt  A helpful B irrelevant C illogical D insensitive

39. the chief said he would use the power inherent in his office to stop the celebration A impervious to B allotted to C unrelated to

40. the action was premeditated A unplanned B unnecessary C catastrophic D uncoordinated

In each of question 41 to 43, chose the option that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter underlined   

41. bushes A shoes B rapes shapes D rakes

42. Character A church B arch C unique D charade

43. garage  A gear B pressure C measure D sure

in each of question 44 to 46 , choose the option that has the same vowel sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined

44. cock A cup B cope C cork D cop

45. says A fierce B wet C rain D dam

46. hurt A hate B hut C girl D hot

In each of question 47 to 61, choose the option nearest in meaning to the word or phrase in italics.

47. Adamu is rather meddlesome in dealing with his friends
(a) intimidating
(b) quarrelsome
(c) impertinent
(d) uncaring

48. His discovery of the vaccine became a quantum leap in the search for a scientific cure iof the illness
(a) slow but steady step
(b) victorious battle
(c) fast but sure step
(d) great improvement

49. the party men reveled all night when the election results were announced
(a) mourned
(b) fought
(c) celebrate
(d) discussed

50. the judge emphasized his morbid desires in his judgment
(a) un critical
(b) unpleasant
(c) inordinate
(d) ravenous

51. the commander said that the battle  would be sustained, total and relentless
(a) brutal
(b) fierce
(c) innocuous
(d) continuous

52. his love suddenly became redeemable
(a) repulsive
(b) incurable
(c) exclusive
(d) recoverable

53. The move to excel the chairman was sanctioned by the members of t he party
(a) opposed
(b) supported
(c) unleased
(d) initiated

54. after the meeting, I read a leer on his face as he looked at the woman
(a) bad look
(b) satisfying meaning
(c) poor smile
(d) pleasant disposition

55. the plan has gone awry
(a) wrong
(b) wild
(c) well
(d) wide

56. because jamiu is so easily offended, he was not considered for the post of headboy
(a) troublesome
(b) stubborn
(c) docile
(d) irritable

57. the witness provided a monstrous account of the event
(a) shocking
(b) supportive
(c) verbatim
(d) tragic

58. he is a prolific writer
(a) an influential
(b) a very productive
(c) a clever
(d) a well known

59. the chairman advised the participant to follow convention in starting their points
(a) eloquence
(b) prudence
(c) tradition
(d) advise

60. the recommendation novel has a convolution theme
(a) an attractive
(b) a simple
(c) a complicated
(d) a disgusting

61. The government has announced its preparedness for the scheme
(a) determination
(b) pleasure
(c) readiness
(d) regret

In each of question 62 to 64, choose the option that has the same stress patterns as the given word

62 Dovetail A proviso B jargon C simplicity D psychiatry

63. apparent A paragraph B appetite C arrested D telephone

64. Unfair A first-class B instant C insight D towards

In each of question 65 to 66, choose the option that has the stress on the first syllable.

65. A mature B madam C frequent (verb) D convict (verb)

66. A pronounce B prepare C provoke D insult (noun)

In each of question 67 to 68, choose the appropriate stress pattern from the options. The syllables are written in capital letters.
67. Catholicism  A catholiCism B catholiliccism C  Catholicism D caTHOlicism.

68. genealogy A genealogy B Genealogy C genealogy D genealogy

In each of question 69 to 70, choose the option that has a different stress pattern from the others. 

69. A syllabus B competent C quality D represent

70. A registration B quadruplicate C ability D revivalist

In each of question 71 to 80, select the option that best explains the information conveyed in the sentence. Each question carries 2 marks.

71. the class has fallen in with the teacher’s plains
(a) the class has accepted the plans
(b) the class has ignored the plans
(c) the class has modified the plans
(d) the class has rejected the plans

72. I owe you far less the you owe me
(a) I owe you something, but you owe me much more
(b) your dept is not much greater than mine
(c) what we owe each other is approximately the same
(d) my dept to you is greater than yours to me

73. ogiri takes after his father; he fawns upon anyone with influence
(a) ogiri, who looks like his father, follows rich and influential people about
(b) ogiri, who always follows his father, tries to act like an influential man
(c) like his father,ogiri hate influential people
(d) like his father, ogiri likes to flatter people with influence in the society

74. he had hardly spoken when the bell rang
(a) he found it difficult to speak, and then the bell rang
(b) the bell rang very soon after he spoke
(c) when the bell rang, he was still speaking
(d) he spoke in a harsh manner and the bell rang

75. after the war, the victors became increasingly vindictive
(a) repressive measure were taking against those who lost the war
(b) those who won the war became treacherous
(c) vengeful attack were incessantly carried out on those who lost the war
(d) friendly measure were taking to heal the wounds

76. I think she takes her guardian’s support for granted
(a) she wants her guardian to grant her more support
(b) her guardian has been helping her for long time, but she does not shoe enough gratitude
(c) she think her guardian will no longer support her as he has been doing
(d) her guardian has been helping her for a long time , and she is very grateful to him

77. You are to write a report and give it to the security office
(a) after writing your report, give it to the security office
(b) you are writing a report , as the security office directed
(c) you have  been ordered to write a report, which you will give to the  security office
(d) the report you are writing should be giving to the security office

78. The dispute over land acquisition has now come to a head
(a) the problem has now been referred to the headquarter
(b) because of the dispute, land acquisition has now been halted
(c) the problem has now been solved
(d) the problem has reached crisis proportions.

79. in our college, the regulation concerned resist are a grey area
(a) the regulation have often been ignored
(b) the regulations are not very clear
(c) the regulation have just been revised
(d) the regulation are perfectly clear.

80. The prefect reeled off the names of all the student who broke the library law
(a) the prefect gave an accurate list of the student who disobeyed library regulation
(b) the prefect omitted the name of the student who broke into the law library
(c) the prefect submitted a complete list of the student who stole library books
(d) the prefect gave a disjointed list of the student in the law library.

In each of question 81 to 100, choose the option that best completes the gap(s).

81. The brave hunter killed the ….. [A big spitting black cobra B  big black spitting  cobra C black big spitting cobra D big spitting cobra black] in the forest.

82. The…. [A benevolent B loquacious C senseless D ruthless ] robber showed no mercy during the attack

83. despite all preparations, the wedding did not …. [ A come by B come  off C come alone D come on ]

84. Olu brought his clothes and those of his … [A elder brothers B senior brother’s C senior brother D elder brother’s]

85. His father hardly misses the news because he goes about with his… [A potable B point able C portable D pocket able] radio

86. Did you have… [A diarrhea B diarrhea C diarrhea D diarrhea] when you went to visit the medical doctor

87. If she…. [Had applied B will apply C has applied D applied] for admission, I am sure he would succeed

88. The investigation commission has treated all the …..[A protests B applications C petitions D enquiries] submitted to it by the warring factors

89. The police claim that a number of stolen cars… [A has been B have been C have being D has being] recovered.

90. Everybody is allowed to … [A show B air C hear D share] his view on state matter

91. For beating…his coursemate, Agaji was … [ A away/sent out B on/ expelled C at/removed D up/rusticated] from the university

92.The old man was rushed to hospital when his blood pressure dropped to a …[ A dangerous low B dangerous lowly C dangerously low D dangerously lowly] level

93. until he lost the election, agbo ….[ A who have hoped B had been hoping C has been hoping D has hoped] to be the students’ union president

94. …. [A he’ll B he is C he’s D is he ] been there to look for her several times without success

95. he wrote to you…[ A hadn’t he B wouldn’t he C hasn’t he D didn’t he ]

96. our neighbor was attracted by the …. [A scent B flavor C aroma D stench]

97. the clubs were not … [A founded B funded C created D found ] on a solid ethical base

98. we have been living peacefully here not … [A again B occasionally C eventually D slowly ] hear rumors of war.

99.i watched him as he … [A is digging B dugged   C dug D digs ] the hole.

100. your performance will improve if you ….[ A practice B would practice C practiced D are practicing ] hard.

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