2006 USE OF ENGLLISH QUESTION PAPER TYPE L
Read the passage below carefully and answer the question that follows. Each question carries 3 marks.
JAMB -UME USE OF ENGLISH 2006 : PASSASGE I
The root of the problems which bedevil rural in Nigeria can be traced to the sad fact that work opportunities are so restricted that they cannot work their way out of poverty and misery. Though a great number Nigerians still live in the village and small towns, work opportunities exist mainly in the big cities where development efforts are concentrated. The reason usually given for this obvious lapse is that it is easier to establish industries and to find finance and markets to keep them going in the big cities and town in the rural areas where productivities is low because of mass illiteracy poverty. As capital is the product of human work, rural dwellers who are desperate enough to overcome poverty often leave the village in search of some kind of existence in the big cities and towns. Therefore, rural unemployment in Nigeria produces mass migration into the cities, leading to a rate of urban growth which seriously taxes the resources of even the biggest cities like Ibadan, Lagos and Kano. From the sad experiences of these cities, it is easy to see how rural unemployment can become urban unemployment with the attendant social problem like robbery, overcrowding and the growth of shanties or slums. Such problems cannot be wished away but will remain with us until deliberate effort are made to bring health to economic life outside the big cities in order to check the migration of destitute rural dwellers into towns and cities that cannot absorb them. It is necessary; therefore, that at least an important part of the development effort should bypass the big cities and be concerned with the provision of viable infrastructure in the small towns and villages. In this connection, it is necessary to emphasize that the primary needs is workplace. The task should be to bring into existence thousand or millions of new workplaces in the rural areas and small towns in order to maximize work opportunity for rural dwellers. For this proposition to make sense, first, the work opportunities should be created in the rural areas where the majority of the people lived, not where they tend to migrate for lack of opportunities. Second, the production methods employed must be relatively simple, so that the demands for high skills are minimized, not only in production process itself but also in matters or organization, raw materials and for local use. Lastly, financing, make ting and so fort. Third, production should be mainly from local material and for local use. Lastly, rural workplaces should be cheap enough so that they can be created in large numbers. These four requirements together meet the description of what is usually called cottage industry. Millions of them are needed for rural transformation in Nigeria and ton check the dangerous process of mutual positioning between urban and rural areas in the country.